Saturday, 25 January 2020

30 Million Waving Trees

During the election several of the parties decided to proclaim their intention to plant millions of trees a year to mitigate our green house gas emissions. I thought I would do some back of the virtual envelope calculations to see what difference this would make.

As a country we voted in a Conservative government with a manifesto commitment to plant 30 million trees a year to help reach net zero emissions by 2050[1]. Based on this and a simple model for capture of carbon by growing trees I got the following results:


  • Planting 30 million new trees a year, every year until 2050 will achieve about 9% of the reductions we would require to reach net zero emissions.
  • That would be 930 million new trees.
  • The same 30 million new trees a year, every year until 2030 would achieve about 1% of the reductions to reach net zero by 2030[2]

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/14cNqpivhaOF4csI3AXJS-reQNfXUOuM_5CBc6sV-viM/edit?usp=sharing



[1] Net zero by 2050 is a time frame that has a low probability of keeping warming  below a relatively safe 1.5C
[2] Net zero by 2030 a time frame that has a high probability of keeping warming  below a relatively safe 1.5C

Thursday, 9 January 2020

EconomyGREEN and Solar Micro Generation


Having begun the development of economyGREEN, a service to help you use electricity when it is at its greenest, and having an interest in home solar installations, I thought I would do some investigation into applying the same forecasting RenSMART uses for the UK to micro solar pv installations. The kind thousands of people have had installed on their roofs throughout the UK.

The idea would be to provide people with forecasts specifically for their location and installation. For example on a day with a sunny afternoon forecast, but cloudy morning, the economyGREEN service would suggest you delay your washing machine load until later in the day.

As a starting point I wanted to see what levels of excess are produced by solar pv in an average setting, and at what times of year.

I took a reasonably central point in the UK, Leicester, as the location of the installation, the electricity use profile of the average house, and a 4kW peak solar installation [1]

Key Points

The key information I discovered was:
  • 46% of generated electricity is excess to the average houses needs and is exported to the grid. This is close to the governments deemed value of 50% which was used to calculate the portion of the feed in tariff due for exporting to the grid.
  • This is almost 2000 kWh per year with a value of about £350 to the home owner if they could make use of it instead of using electricity imported from the grid.
  • This is saving of 1000kg of CO2 emissions per year. About the same as a return flight from the UK to New York.

The Data

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/17USEzJkZ-X8nI8K7WJi_HRoSrey3pEeKW4OlZ0T7l8I/edit?usp=sharing

What to do ?

The next question is what to do with this excess as an alternative to exporting it to the grid. With the end of the feed in tariff and no reliable replacement payment mechanism, using it within the house would seem like a good idea.

One option is to delay the use of appliances until the points in the day when excess is being generated. This is what the economyGREEN tag and app do, telling you the delay required for an appliance to use the greenest electricity.

For the wider grid, this just as likely to be at night than in the day due to the large amount of wind energy we, as a country, generate. However micro generation is mostly solar, and most excess is generated at midday, when the sun is at its highest, as you would expect. If you are about to do a washing load at 6pm, it is not helpful to suggest you delay it 16 hours to use the next days excess.

Battery Storage is expensive

One solution would be to install a battery storage solution[2]. This would cost about £500 per kWh.

At peak generation in the summer months, there is an excess of 14kWh to store, the mean excess is 5.6kWh. That would require a £7,000 battery installation to store each days excess for use later or £3,000 to store the average days excess.

Based on the excess electricity value of £350, that would take 20 or 10 years respectively to recoup the cost of installation.

Heat Storage is cheaper

A second solution would be to store the excess as heat and then release it throughout the cold parts of the day to keep the house warm and offset central heating.

Heat storage has a much lower cost than battery storage coming in at an estimated £20 per kW stored[3], That is almost 17 times cheaper than battery storage.

Also in the spreadsheet you will see that I have included average outside temperatures[4].
This shows that the average house wishing to keep an internal temperature of 19C is likely to need heating for all days on the year, as the outside temperature drops below this level. 14kWh of heat storage would cost £280 and £112 would store the excess energy as heat for most days.

economyGREEN for home solar PV

Based on this, RenSMART will be creating a specific economyGREEN service to control storage heaters for anyone interested who has (or intends to have) solar PV installed.

For more information contact nikcross@rensmart.com



[1] 4kW is the most popular installation size in the UK due to feed in tariff break points. The feed in tariff rate dropped significantly for larger installations.

[2] Based on price of a Lithium Ion battery backup installation

[3] Simple thermostatically controlled storage radiator storing for maximum of 12 hours

[4] Temperatures taken from the Metoffice weather station at Sutton Bonnington over the last 20 years.

Saturday, 28 December 2019

10 Renewable Energy and Green Songs

So its that period between Christmas and New Year where you are not sure what day it is, the diet is mostly leftovers and you are getting ready for the year to come. I spent a car journey between relatives coming up with a top ten songs related to renewable energy and green issues.

This is the list we came up with. Number ten is left empty, please feel free to suggest one in the comments. An obvious start, without need for much of an introduction. This is what we are fighting for and what we have to lose:

 1. Wonderful World.

Louis Armstrong  You can read more about it here 

The Wombles have been on message since 1968. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. They were there and that is why they get number two spot in our list.

 2. The Wombling Song

The Wombles 

With solar panels on our roof (which have now paid for themselves in both money and carbon reduction), clear skies mean free electricity to us, so this one gets position three.

 3. I Can See Clearly Now 

 Hot House Flowers

 

However, as a country, our reduction in the use of fossil fuels can be put down to our building of wind farms, both on and off shore. As I write this, almost 30% of our electricity is being generated by wind turbines. I'll give the fire a miss, but I'll go with the wind :-)

 4. Fantasy 

Earth Wind and Fire

 

Now we get to the political ones. This gets into the list for the only Green Party MP, Caroline Lucas.
I won't go on about the fact the Green Party recieved 800,000 votes in the recent election and only have one MP. (Oh wait, I did)

 5. Sweet Caroline

Neil Daimond   

This one is really just dedicated by us to one American. The one who thinks wind turbines cause cancer and climate change is a conspiracy by the Chinese.

 6. American Idiot 

Green Day

 

And this is our message to him :-)

 7. Science Is Real 

They Must Be Giants

 

Now for probably our most tentative song. There is no real excuse for this except it came to mind and was part of my childhood.

8. Green Door 

Shaking Stevens 

 

John Lennon only gets a look in because I think if he was still alive, he would have written a good song for this list. As it is, this is the most appropriate I could find.

 9. Cleanup Time 

John Lennon 

 

I don't think I'll give up my day job and become a musicologist (A real job. I've worked with some before). The number ten slot is empty for you to suggest the final track. Please feel free to leave suggestions in the comments along with the reason for your choice if it is not obvious. Thanks.
Happy Christmas and a Green New Year to you all.

 10 ?

Sunday, 24 November 2019

Threat to Solar


The current government have removed most of the incentives for installing your own renewable electricity generators and in addition have increased the tax on new installations. This goes against all of their talk of tackling climate change. Under their watch micro wind generation has all but stopped and there is a risk solar will go the same way. Each roof top solar installation saves an average of 26 tons of CO2 emissions over its lifetime and if installed on the roofs of all new homes, would make a significant impact on our countries carbon footprint.

The tax rate on domestic coal is 5% The tax rate on domestic solar has been raised to 20%

The then environment secretary, Michael Gove, agreed that there was a climate emergency, but said he did not like the idea of declaring one. Telegraph


In April this year the MCS feed in tariff ended. The feed in tariff was intended as a reducing payment that would encourage solar installations while reducing year-on-year as the price of installation dropped due to economies of scale.

Payments were set by OFGEN each year with the payment having two elements, one payment was based on generation (the total electricity produced weather used or exported to the national grid) and a second payment for the amount exported.

Due to the lack of smart metering at the time the scheme started, the amount exported was deemed to be half of that generated. The amount paid was an index linked rate set yearly by OFGEN.

You could argue that it had done its job. Solar installation prices had come down to such an extent that they could payback their initial investment within a reasonable period of time without the need for incentives.

However, solar installations of a size suitable for most homes will produce more than they require at certain times of the year. At this point, the excess generated electricity is fed into the grid.

The government failed to provide a replacement for the feed in tariff, so it is currently up to your electricity provider to set a value on the electricity you supply them.

It is planned to set a minimum rate in January, but smaller electricity providers are exempt and the rate is likely to be considerably lower than the amount we pay to receive electricity into our homes.

https://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/renewable-energy/electricity/solar-panels/smart-export-guarantee-and-feed-tariffs

https://www.solar-trade.org.uk/resource-centre/advice-tips-for-households/smart-export-guarantee/

Secondly, until October this year, solar panels had a VAT rate of 5%. The same rate as domestic fuel like gas, oil or coal. This has now been raised to 20%. This one piece of legislation will probably put an end to solar installations in the UK

This legislation was passed on 25 June 2019, the same day the UK House of Commons passed legislation to commit the UK to net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.

The rate increase was claimed to bring us in to line with EU rule, however this does not seem to be the case. The lower rate of VAT on solar had been discussed in 2016 and was deemed to meet EU tax rules at that point. Nothing has changed and yet here we are.

https://www.solarpowerportal.co.uk/news/solar_and_storage_vat_legislation_moves_forward_despite_strong_opposition

https://www.power-technology.com/news/hmrc-vat-solar/

Saturday, 23 November 2019

Quick ! Solar !

I have been asked a few times recently, is it still worth getting Solar installed at home on your roof. I have gathered the data and completed the calculations, The answer still seems to be yes.

Despite the current governments lack-lustre support of micro renewable generation and the almost complete decimation of the micro wind generation market, a micro solar installation still looks like it will pay the initial outlay back within a reasonable time.

The following link will take you to a simple calculator for returns from solar installations based on average prices recorded as part of the official MCS certification process.
https://www.rensmart.com/Calculators/QuickSolarProject

Based on our estimates, a 4kW installation (the average size) would cost about £7264 and pay for itself in about 10 years. The total value of savings over 25 years is an estimated £35,385 and over 26 tons of CO2.

Friday, 15 November 2019

The PACA

Personal Annual Carbon Allowance

At RenSMART, we have been working to offer a set of applications to enable individuals or households to calculate, track and reduce their carbon footprint, but this is not much use if you do not know what your carbon footprint, ideally, should be.

As part of this process, we have developed the concept of a personal carbon allowance. An annual carbon allowance based on traceable scientific sources.

A personal annual carbon allowance (PACA) is the amount of carbon dioxide or equivalent gasses (CO2e) a person should aim to reduce themselves to generating in a given year.

In the case of a RenSMART PACA, we propose a voluntary allowance that people sign up to and track.
There are four steps to realising this:
  1. Calculating a baseline level. The amount you generate now.
  2. Calculating the maximum you could generate to stay within a target. We are aiming at maximum 1.5C rise in temperature by 2030.
  3. Finding changes in behaviour that would meet that target.
  4. Measuring the CO2 generated or mitigated to show whether you are on target.

Old idea, new format.

Personal carbon allowances are not a new idea. They have been floated many times before, but have not been implemented. The reasons are no doubt many, complex and varied [2].

One implementation suggestion from 2013 [1] was to take all of the CO2 generated in the UK and share it out with children taking half of an adult share. The calculations showed that sharing the CO2 emissions, generated at that time by the UK, would set each adults allowance at  4336 kgCO2 / year and each child's to 2168 kgCO2 / year. The suggestion was that the allowance would be reduced each year to meet an agreed target, with those over producing paying to offset and those under producing getting a payment.

We have chosen to go with the simplest methodology we can for calculating a PACA. Take the target global carbon emissions to attain the goal of keeping the global temperature at a safe level. Divide this by the number of humans on the planet.

Calculation of the PACA

  • 2020 target = 38.4 GtCO2e / year
  • 2020 World Population estimate 7.87 billion
  • Suggested PACA for 2020 38.4 billion / 8.87 billion = 4.892 t = 4892 kg CO2 per year = 1 PACA
You will find our sources and calculations on the PACA page.

Nudge psychology

Rather than an enforced PACA that has been suggested in the past, we would like to introduce a PACA that people can sign up to. Rather that wave a statutory stick, threatening taxation on using more than your allowance, we would like to offer a voluntary nudge.

As an example of an energy saving nudge, we have created a service called economyGREEN. It provides a 24 hour renewable energy forecast and a companion app provides advice on when to use your washing machine etc. when renewable energy generation is at its highest. You can find further details on the economyGREEN web page.

Calculating a Base Level

We intend to take the best methodologies and calculations available to calculate an individuals current CO2e footprint. We will make the methodology publicly available for scrutiny and reuse, with an agile update process taken from the software industry to constantly improve its accuracy.
This we intend to develop as an open source project, freely available for anyone to use and include in their own projects.

Making Changes

We will make a set of tools available to individuals and organisations. We will offer applications to help people to keep track of their progress towards the goals they have chosen.
Our first, very modest tool, is called economyGREEN [5] and helps people to use electricity when its carbon intensity is at its lowest (when the largest amount of it is from renewable sources)

Keeping Score

RenSMART will offer an online service to keep track, like a fitness tracker but for carbon emissions.
Again, we propose to make this software open source. Free for anyone to use or contribute to.

Changing the PACA

Our methodology will be evidence based and list the sources used. We will openly discuss the decisions made, justify them and where improvements are found, apply them.
We will update the suggested PACA every six months to keep to a target CO2 level and maximum temperature rise.

Sources:

[1] https://www.cse.org.uk/downloads/file/project_paper_3_personal_carbon_allowances.pdf

[2] https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/personal-carbon-allowances-budgets

[3] https://www.rensmart.com/PACA

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paca :-)

[5] https://www.rensmart.com/EconomyGREEN

Tuesday, 12 November 2019

economyGREEN app demo available

We now have a demo version of the economyGREEN web app available for you to try. Click on the image to load it in your browser. It is restricted to only one model of washing machine and only has a small selection of devices.


Alternatively use this QR code to open it on your phone:

If you like it, please pledge your support through our Kickstarter page and tell your friends and family. We don't have long until the Kickstarter campaign ends.